Stress is a mechanical property that deforms a body on which the force is applied. It is denoted by the symbol σ. Stress is expressed as the internal forces on a body per unit cross-sectional area of a body, σ = F / A. It is measured in SI units, N/m2. The deformation due to the applied stress is called as strain. There are basically two types of stresses. The first type is normal stress that acts perpendicular to the surface, which is either a tensile stress or a compressive stress. The second one is shear stress that acts parallel to the surface.
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What is a stress concentration?edit
In an axially loaded object with a discontinuity in it, the stress trajectories of the stress distribution will not be uniformly distributed. These trajectories tend to get concentrated at the edges of the discontinuity. This is known as stress concentration.